Heating Oil Explained – An Easy Guide
If this is the first time you have approached buying heating oil, then you may be a little overwhelmed with all the information that is being thrown at you. To make things easier, we have boiled down all the information you need about heating oil into this helpful guide.
- What Is Heating Oil?
- How Do I Buy Heating Oil?
- How Much Heating Oil Can I Order?
- What Are the Different Types of Heating Oil?
- Is Home Heating Oil The Same As Kerosene?
- When Is The Best Time To Buy Heating Oil?
- Why Use Heating Oil For My Central Heating?
- Common Uses for Gas Oil
- Common Uses for Kerosene
- How Is Kerosene Made?
- How Many People Use Home Heating Oil in The UK?
- Regulations for Storing Heating Oil
- A Brief History of Kerosene
- How Heating Oil Changed the Oil Industry
- The Flash Point of Heating Oil
- Heating Oil Spec Sheets
What Is Heating Oil?
Heating oil is the name used for heating applications in central heating systems. There are two types of heating oil – gas oil and kerosene. Gas oil (also known as red diesel and 35-second oil) is generally for commercial and agricultural use. Kerosene (also known as home heating oil or 28-second oil) is a lighter oil that is used in many homes.
How Do I Buy Heating Oil?
Buying heating oil is a simple process. However, due to the size of heating oil fuel storage tanks, and the quantity of fuel they store your domestic or commercial heating oil will need to be delivered by a fuel supplier. Before you run out, call your fuel supplier ahead of time and schedule a delivery to your property. You don’t need to be home either, so long as your fuel storage tank is in an accessible location.
To order heating oil for your home or business, click here.
How Much Heating Oil Can I Order?
As much as you need! Typically home fuel storage tanks hold around 1,000-litres of oil, and it is always best practice to order before the tank is empty, to prevent being caught in the cold with no central heating, although most fuel suppliers might have a minimum order. With Crown Oil, we can supply orders as low as a 205-litre barrel. For pumping into a tank, the minimum is 500-litres.
Businesses store anything from 1000-litres to much more, depending on the site – a pub or smallholding will not need more than a 1,000-litre tank, while office buildings and other commercial sites will have far larger requirements for their industrial heating oil.
What Are the Different Types of Heating Oil?
- Gas Oil: Gas oil is most commonly known as red diesel or 35-second oil. The latter name is in relation to the distillation process. It is most commonly used in the commercial and agricultural industries. It is cheaper than road diesel (derv) because it is a rebated fuel.
- Kerosene: Kerosene is sometimes known as 28-second oil or home heating oil. Kerosene is primarily used for home heating and it is considerably lighter than gas oil.
- Kleenburn Kerosene – This type of heating oil is a lot cleaner when burning which is less polluting than normal kerosene. Kleenburn kerosene is slightly higher in price, however; it’s a lot safer for the environment and helps keep emissions’ low, which is especially helpful for companies.
- Furnace Fuel – Furnace fuel is usually required in municipal buildings like schools and colleges. It is fully compliant to BS EN 2869, Class D parameters, which is the British Approved Standard for heating oil. It can be used in all commercial boilers.
Kerosene is the most widely used fuel used in domestic central heating systems in the UK, so we often refer to it as home heating oil or domestic heating oil. It is chosen for its winter performance, affordability, and because it offers a cleaner and more efficient burn compared to diesel. Read our kerosene guide to learn more about this oil.
When Is The Best Time To Buy Heating Oil?
Heating oil prices are tied to the price of crude oil, so whether you’re looking for commercial heating oil or domestic heating oil, the cost of your order will vary daily and at different times of the year. Generally speaking, you can always expect the price to go up during period of high demand – such as winter. If you are eager to save on your heating fuel costs, then ordering in summer is the best time to buy heating oil. In fact, the average national price of heating oil in August compared to December in 2016-2019 varied by 14%, a huge price difference!
Why Use Heating Oil For My Central Heating?
1.5 million homes choose kerosene for their heating system due to the fact the fuel burns cleanly, efficiently and it also has good winter performance. Meanwhile, gas oil is the preferred heating oil for businesses due to its cost-effectiveness and availability to the market.
What is Gas Oil Used For?
While being used for commercial and agricultural use, gas oil most commonly fuels such equipment as cranes, tractors, generators, and bulldozers.
Outside of commercial and agricultural use, gas oil is often used to power generators at festivals and carnivals.
Gas oil is cheaper to use than road diesel because it doesn’t have the same level of tax attached to it. Having said that, it’s important to remember that it is illegal to use gas oil in a vehicle that is used on public roads.
What is Kerosene Used For?
Kerosene is primarily used in home heating systems that are fuelled by an oil boiler. It is currently the most common form of domestic oil in Ireland, as it is widely used in cookers and boilers.
How Is Kerosene Made?
Over the years, the production of kerosene has become an easier process. Kerosene is produced through a process called fractional distillation, which involves separating the compounds of crude oil.
This process creates a clear and thin oil which is 0.82 g/cm³ in density. This clear and thin oil is Kerosene.
Here is a diagram of a fractionating column to illustrate how kerosene is collected:
How Many People Use Home Heating Oil in The UK?
Around 1.5 million homes are currently using kerosene in order to heat their homes. As you would expect, the vast majority of people require their home heating oil supply to be topped up during the winter months when they are using their boilers more.
Kerosene still remains a popular choice for home heating, mainly because it is quite cost-effective and is reasonably safe to use.
Regulations for Storing Heating Oil
If you are going to be storing heating oil at your home, then it is important that you meet regulations set by the government.
The home storage regulations apply to oil storage tanks that hold up to 3,500 litres. If your tank holds anything higher, then you will have to follow the business regulations.
If you are getting a tank installed at your home for the first time, then you will have to make sure that the person performing the installation is registered with the Competent Person scheme. If you don’t get someone who is registered with this scheme, you will have to go to your local council authority for a Building Control Notice. You will also likely have to pay for an inspection.
For more information, consult the government website.
A Brief History of Kerosene
Kerosene was first discovered in 1846 by Abraham Gesner, a geologist who unveiled his discovery in a public demonstration. He showed a captive audience how he could heat coal and then distilled a fluid that he said would be ideal for lamp fuel. He coined the phrase kerosene.
Gesner had only one problem. Distilling kerosene from coal was very expensive, making it very difficult to put into production. However, Gesner knew that he could use albertite, which would make production considerably cheaper.
Unfortunately for Gesner, he was unable to secure permission to use albertite in his current location of New Brunswick. He attempted to get permission through the court, with no success.
Gesner did not give up. He moved to New York in 1854 where he was able to get backing for his project from businessmen. They created the North American Gas Light Company and kerosene went into production for the very first time.
How Heating Oil Changed the Oil Industry
The discovery of kerosene played quite a large part in changing the oil industry. Before kerosene was discovered, whale oil was used in order to heat homes.
Whale oil was extracted with the use of crude oils. It was also colourless, so a dye had to be added to it to distinguish it from gas oil. When kerosene went into production in 1846, it replaced whale oil as the leading home heating oil.
The Flash Point of Heating Oil
Because of the difference in viscosity, gas oil and kerosene both have different flash points:
|Gas Oil||56 °C|
|Kerosene||38 – 43 °C|
Heating Oil Spec Sheets
We have a list of specification sheets for gas oil and kerosene. See below.
- Gas Oil Class A2 Spec Sheet
- Gas Oil Class D Spec Sheet
- Gas Oil EN590 Spec Sheet
- Kerosene Premium Class C1 Spec Sheet
- Kerosene Regular Class C2 Spec Sheet
If you have any further questions about heating oil for your home, business or other commercial buildings, give our friendly and knowledgeable team a call today on 0330 123 1444. You can also request a quote and place orders using the same number.